Genetic maps provide a rough approximation of the locations of genes
In the context of genomics, annotation is the process of marking the genes and other biological features in a DNA sequence.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. This particular science mainly concerned with developing databases, computer–search algorithms, gene-prediction software, and other analytical tools that are used to make sense of DNA, RNA, and protein-sequence data.
Complete genome sequences have now been determined for more than 1000 organisms, with many additional projects underway. These studies are producing tremendous quantities of sequence data. Cataloging, storing, retrieving, and analyzing this huge data set are major challenges of modern genetics.
The development and use of algorithms and computer software for analyzing DNA and protein-sequence data have helped to make molecular biology a more quantitative field.
Thus, having complete genome sequences of crop plants and domestic animals will make it easier to identify genes that affect yield, disease and pest resistance, and other agriculturally important traits, which can then be manipulated by traditional breeding or by genetic engineering to produce greater quantities and more nutritious foods. In the future, whole or partial genomic sequence information will be used in individual patient care.