Introduction

Acids and bases are important in numerous chemical processes that occur around us, from industrial processes to biological ones, from reactions in the laboratory to those in our environment.

The time required for a metal object immersed in water to corrode, the ability of an aquatic environment to support fish and plant life, the fate of pollutants washed out of the air by rain, and even the rates of reactions that maintain our lives are all critically dependent upon the acidity or basicity of solutions. Indeed, an enormous amount of chemistry can be understood in terms of acid–base reactions.

From the earliest days of experimental chemistry, scientists have recognized acids and bases by their characteristic properties. Acids have a sour taste (for example, citric acid in lemon juice) and cause certain dyes to change color (for example, litmus turns red on contact with acids). Infact, the word “acid” comes from the Latin word acidus, meaning sour or tart. Bases, in contrast, have a bitter taste and feel slippery (soap is a good example).

The word “base” comes from an old English meaning of the word, which is “to bring low”. When bases are added to acids, they lower the amount of acid. Indeed, when acids and bases are mixed in certain proportions, their characteristic properties disappear altogether forming a new substance commonly called as "salt" .