Albinism - Congenital disorder
Albinism is associated with a number of vision defects, such as Photophobia, Nystagmus (voluntary and involuntary eye movement) and Astigmatism (blurred vision). Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptible to sunburn and skin cancers.
Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Only apple trees produce apples, and only lions can make more lions. Biological inheritance or heredity is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism. The transmission of traits from one generation to the next is called heredity. Along with inherited similarity, there is also variation, Offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings. Through inheritance, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause a species to evolve.
In humans, for example, eye color is an inherited characteristic, which individuals can inherit from one of their parents. Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the entire set of genes within an organism’s genome is called its genotype. The complete set of observable traits that make up the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits come from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
As a result, not every aspect of an organism’s phenotype is inherited. Suntanned skin results from the interaction between a person’s genotype and sunlight; thus, a suntan is not hereditary. However, people have different responses to sunlight, arising from differences in their genotype; a striking example is individuals with the inherited trait of albinism (Albinism is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment (melanin) in the skin, hair and eyes due to defect of tyrosinase, a copper–containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin.), who do not tan and are highly sensitive to sunburn.